Meshing for Column Loads

For material nonlinear analysis of frame models, you can improve the computed response by using more displacement-based elements or more integration points in a force-based element. The material nonlinearity occurs inside the basic system, also known as the natural system or the kernel. To capture geometric nonlinearity due to large displacements, you have to go … Continue reading Meshing for Column Loads

More Is Not Always Better

I sometimes run across simulations where frame member response is computed using displacement-based beam-column elements with more than two Gauss points per element. These elements require at least two Gauss points to ensure a complete solution and to capture the exact solution for a linear-elastic, prismatic member. While it is well known that you can … Continue reading More Is Not Always Better

A Tale of Two Element Formulations

The question of whether to use the force-based or displacement-based formulation for material nonlinear frame analysis is one that comes up a lot. The answer depends on a few factors, mostly the material and the element length. To get a sense of the basic issues, I will compare the two element formulations with a numerical … Continue reading A Tale of Two Element Formulations

Be More Specific than “Fiber Element”

I hear the term "fiber element" a lot, as in "We used fiber elements to model the response of this reinforced concrete moment frame". Usually, when people say something like this, they are referring to "force-based distributed plasticity frame elements with fiber-discretized cross sections". That is a mouthful. I can see the desire to shorten … Continue reading Be More Specific than “Fiber Element”

Is Plastic Hinge Integration a Fruit or a Vegetable?

If distributed plasticity elements are fruits and concentrated plasticity elements are vegetables, then plastic hinge integration is something like a tomato. Based on papers I've read, manuscripts I've reviewed, presentations I've seen, etc., there's some confusion as to whether plastic hinge integration is a fruit or a vegetable. Here's my two cents. Concentrated plasticity elements … Continue reading Is Plastic Hinge Integration a Fruit or a Vegetable?