Meshing for Column Loads

For material nonlinear analysis of frame models, you can improve the computed response by using more displacement-based elements or more integration points in a force-based element. The material nonlinearity occurs inside the basic system, also known as the natural system or the kernel. To capture geometric nonlinearity due to large displacements, you have to go … Continue reading Meshing for Column Loads

More Is Not Always Better

I sometimes run across simulations where frame member response is computed using displacement-based beam-column elements with more than two Gauss points per element. These elements require at least two Gauss points to ensure a complete solution and to capture the exact solution for a linear-elastic, prismatic member. While it is well known that you can … Continue reading More Is Not Always Better

A Semi-Blind Kind of Contest

Contests where researchers and practitioners blindly predict the response of structural systems have produced some rather interesting results. And by "interesting", I mean "all over the place". So much so, that in an effort to protect the contestants, the contest organizers rarely make the results publicly available. Nonlinear structural analysis is hard though. Even with … Continue reading A Semi-Blind Kind of Contest

A Tale of Two Element Formulations

The question of whether to use the force-based or displacement-based formulation for material nonlinear frame analysis is one that comes up a lot. The answer depends on a few factors, mostly the material and the element length. To get a sense of the basic issues, I will compare the two element formulations with a numerical … Continue reading A Tale of Two Element Formulations

With or Without You

Citation-based metrics are like lottery tickets--they are not for investment purposes and should be used for entertainment only. Unfortunately, some promotion and tenure evaluators treat citation-based metrics like investment decisions. To aid in evaluation, citation-based metrics are readily available online, ranging from Web of Science, which indexes only archival publications, to Google Scholar, which indexes … Continue reading With or Without You

Better than Ideal Conditions

In simulating the nonlinear response of structural models, the Newton-Raphson algorithm converges quadratically as the iterations approach equilibrium at a time step. Quadratic convergence means the error at the current iteration is less than some constant times the square of the error at the previous iteration, e.g., the error is on the order of $latex … Continue reading Better than Ideal Conditions