Verifying Ain’t Easy

I've posted a few modeling challenges on frame analysis (strongback, Ziemian, and stability) and soil-structure interaction. However, I recently accepted a challenge from George Chamosfakidis to see if OpenSees can give the same periods and mode shapes reported in the ETABS verification example shown below. Published verification examples typically just show the "correct" result and … Continue reading Verifying Ain’t Easy

Load Patterns and Time Series

In nonlinear structural analysis, loads add together, just not the load effects. So, the total mechanical load applied to a structural model can be expressed as the sum of time-varying load vectors. $latex {\bf P}(t)={\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^N} \lambda_i(t){\bf P}_{ref,i}$ Each load vector is the product of a time-varying scalar function, $latex \lambda(t)$, and a non-time-varying reference … Continue reading Load Patterns and Time Series

Reduce Your Bandwidth

For large structural models, the solution to $latex {\bf K}_T\Delta {\bf U}={\bf R}$ can be the computational bottleneck during an analysis. Although computing speed and algorithms to solve $latex {\bf K}_T\Delta {\bf U}={\bf R}$ are very good, you still want to make sure the solution happens as quickly as possible, particularly when inside the double … Continue reading Reduce Your Bandwidth

Closing the Loop on Direct Assembly

All structural engineering students learn the direct assembly method, where you fix all degrees of freedom (DOFs) in a structural model, then impose a unit value of displacement at and in the direction of the $latex j^{th}$ DOF in order to get the $latex j^{th}$ column of the stiffness matrix from the fixed-end forces of … Continue reading Closing the Loop on Direct Assembly

Handle Your Constraints with Care

Manipulating the nodal equilibrium equations is necessary to enforce constraints between degrees of freedom (DOFs) at two or more nodes in a structural model. These multi-point constraints arise from assumptions of axial and flexural rigidity of frame elements, e.g., rigid diaphragms, and also between two nodes at the same location where some of the DOFs … Continue reading Handle Your Constraints with Care