Stress Resultant Verification

Verifying material nonlinear frame element formulations is pretty difficult. There are only a handful of analytical solutions that do not rely on bilinear uniaxial constitutive response. You're much better off verifying geometric nonlinearity. However, an example based on a relatively straightforward biaxial stress resultant plasticity model has intrigued me over the years. The example, described … Continue reading Stress Resultant Verification

Plastic Rotation

Plastic rotations are a common damage measure for frame members and frequently define limit states of structural performance under seismic loading. The calculation of plastic rotations for frame elements in OpenSees is based on a decomposition of deformations in to elastic and plastic components. The elastic deformations are obtained by elastic unloading of the basic … Continue reading Plastic Rotation

How Many Clicks Does It Take?

Coding single degree of freedom (SDF) response in order to generate earthquake response spectra is a rite of passage in earthquake engineering research and education. I wrote my first response spectrum in MATLAB. Nowadays, people are likely to use Python. To generate response spectra in OpenSees, you can create a simple one-dimensional model of SDF … Continue reading How Many Clicks Does It Take?

It’s Not Load Control

The static integrators in OpenSees, including displacement control, arc length, and minimum unbalanced displacement norm (MUDN), are based on an incremental-iterative framework. After an initial load increment, each integrator imposes a constraint on the change in load factor at subsequent equilibrium iterations within a pseudo-time step. Displacement control calculates the change in load factor necessary … Continue reading It’s Not Load Control