# Pseudo-Time Is Not the Load Factor

In a nonlinear static analysis, the time series associated with lateral loads is typically linear: ops.timeSeries('Linear',1) In this case, the load factor, $latex \lambda$, associated with the time series is equal to the pseudo-time in the domain, i.e., $latex \lambda(t)=t$. Then, when you use the '-time' option in the node and element recorders, you get … Continue reading Pseudo-Time Is Not the Load Factor

# Load Patterns and Time Series

In nonlinear structural analysis, loads add together, just not the load effects. So, the total mechanical load applied to a structural model can be expressed as the sum of time-varying load vectors. $latex {\bf P}(t)={\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^N} \lambda_i(t){\bf P}_{ref,i}$ Each load vector is the product of a time-varying scalar function, $latex \lambda(t)$, and a non-time-varying reference … Continue reading Load Patterns and Time Series